Foreign Direct Investment

Introduction 1

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) being an investment carried out in a business by investors from some other countries whereby the particular foreign investor has control over the company purchased is associated with several benefits. A company that makes foreign direct investments is often referred to as the multinational corporations or the multinational enterprises. In case a multinational corporation makes a direct investment whereby he/she creates a new foreign enterprise, this is referred as the green investment while through the acquisition of a foreign firm is known as the brownfield investment. According to various ratings FDI has the potential in bringing environmental benefits when it comes to the host economies which is through the dissemination of good the technology as well as the good practices within the Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) which also through their subsequent spillovers to the domestic firms.

 Benefits of Foreign Direct Investment.

 Some of the benefits associated with the foreign direct investments in terms democracy promotion and environment are as follows:

  1. An introduction of environmentally friendly technology.

 FDI plays a significant role when it comes to the technology development of a particular country especially where the investment is being carried out (Alfaro 2004, 95)3.   2     

 There are definite technological effects resulting from the use of environmentally friendly technology. Usually, there is a significant potential for the technological diffusion from the mining investment. The reason being that mines tends to be essentially low-technology earth moving operations, especially where there is involvement of open pit operations. It helps create a more conducive environment to an investor as well as benefiting the local industry of a state. This benefit is commonly applicable to the countries that are developing. When it comes to most of the countries that are economically developing, foreign direct investments tend to be significant external sources (Edwards 1992)4.

 Considering a country like the South Africa where the mining industry is one of the most established in the world, much of the mining technology used currently has already been produced locally thus the technological effects is likely to be small in mining.

 Since the potential positive spillover is far more liable to take place in the mineral processing and the finished product manufacture, there is an opportunity for the foreign investors to introduce an environmentally friendly technology. This, in turn, leads to developing the technology.

  1. Positive Regulatory and Policy Effects By The Government.

 Normally positive governing or the policy effects result from the potential improvement in regulation (Jaffe 2002, 60)5. 3

 Taking an example of a country like the South Africa, it has an adamant law and also the institutions with a very long effective supervision of the mining industry with the assistance of the government willingness to proceed the potential economic benefits when it come to the presence of doubts regarding the environmental impacts of the mining development. It is thus very unlikely for the foreign direct investment in the mining sector to have a negative policy or the regulatory effects.

 Also taking an example of a country like Ghana, it is clear that some mining operations that are financed by the FDI, especially where there is involvement of the IFC financing, there is applying of environmental standards in advance of the ones required by the government.

  1. Positive structural effects.

 Normally positive structural effects occur when the existing targeting foreign direct investment (FDI) is involving environmental pressure that is less than the previous targets, this may include a shift from the manufacturing to the services (Coyne Sr 2012)6. Taking, for example, a mining industry, the main structural effect that may result is the replacement of artisanal as well as the small scale mining by the large-scale projects. FDI helps in providing a source of capital, generating new job opportunities, boosting economic growth, and complementing private domestic investment in the host countries (Biglaiser 2006, 60) 7

  1. Development of the domestic industries.4

 The technological externalities and the demonstration effects of the economy result in a positive outcome on the local firm’s total factor together on their propensity to export (Markusen 1999, 345)8. The spillover channels arising from the FDI helps improve the efficiency that may involve copying of technologies of the foreign affiliates that is operating in the local market that may be through hiring trained workers by the affiliates or through observation. Normally the development of the domestic industry is achieved through the direct transfer of knowledge that is from the foreign customers to the local supplies.

  1. Increasing the demand for the environmental quality.

Foreign direct investment in a particular country leads to increased demand for the environmental quality that simultaneously increases the level of income (Lambin 2011, 3468)9. Mainly as the Foreign Direct Investment increases the level of the income, it directly contributes to a rise in environmental demand. To increase this environmental demand, a democratic 5government requires coming up with rules and regulations that are governing the FDI by the foreign investors in a way that is attractive and seems friendly.

 In conclusion, foreign direct investment is highly associated with some benefits regarding democracy promotion and the environment.

 These benefits may include the introduction of environmentally friendly technology, positive structural impacts, and Positive regulatory and policy effects by the government, development of domestic industries, and increasing the demand for the environmental quality.

 Government policies due to the democracy of a country have effects on FDI because of the agreements between a government that allow investors from a particular country with an aim of gaining entry into the market (Busse 2007, 405)10. Also, FDI also has some other benefits like ensuring easy access to the markets and reducing the production cost (Helpman 2003)11. It acts as an effective way when it comes to entering a foreign market. Usually, some countries tend to have an extreme limit when it comes to the companies accessing their domestic markets. For reducing the cost of production, FDI serves as a means that help reduces the production cost if it happens that the market is cheaper, and also the regulations are less restrictive when it comes to targeting market functions that are determined by the government (JANAKIRAM 2011)12.

 

 

Book Review: Fly-Girls, Bitches and Hoes: Notes of a Hip-Hop Feminist

 

The article “Fly-Girls, Bitches and Hoes: Notes of a Hip-Hop Feminist” by Joan Morgan focuses on the issues of sexism and misogyny that are present in the hip-hop music produced in the current times. The author seeks to answer critics who identify that she is a feminism activist yet she still associates with the hateful music. Morgan uses this opportunity to explain how her love for hip-hop developed from its start to the point where it is currently (Morgan 151). The music was once a battle of who has the best lyrics and rhymes along with “fly-girls” so as to boast to the rest of his peers. However, it has now turned to a medium of insulting these former “fly-girls” as they are called “bitches and hoes”.

 

 

The article that is review by an academic writer from indicates, “It also maintains that black-on-black love is essential to the survival of both” (retrieved and viewed on December 28, 2015). This phrase is important in expressing the author’s position that hip hop and her stance on feminism are not incongruent rather it is her community who seem to be at loggerheads. Moreover, she indicates that there is more to these hip-hop songs that have been already judged as sexist or misogynous. Close analysis of these lyrics demonstrate a state of depression existing among African American men in the society as they pass it off as machismo through committing murder, abusing drugs and violence against women (Morgan 153).

 

The author indeed is correct in pointing out that the African American race is in a state of crisis. Members of the community have allowed crime, drug abuse, gender roles and economic classes to tear them apart. Previously, the members were loyal to each other as evident in the many centuries of oppression they have conquered together. As a result, this population could be the source of its own demise.

 

 

Space and Earth scientific research. Typical our exercises right now: urban, deforestation and pollution increase

Space and Earth scientific research. Typical our exercises right now: urban, deforestation and pollution increase stars and planetsA lot off the standard human being habits at this point are urban, deforestation and pollution growth. These adventures have badly altered existent natural and organic situations including climatic conditions designs. Periodic rain layouts are one of the more often than not affected temperatures. Twelve-monthly degrees of rain fall attained may be declining every year. By exploring impacts of deforestation on precipitation patterns, this article starts. This is quite simply recognized that trees have fun with a vital purpose in rain fall growth by using the procedure of evapotranspiration. Chopping of trees without any manufacturing goals to exchange them alters rain creation treatment. That is as a result of decreased moist launches to the environment. Reduced rain quantities imply that heat pace inside world is outstanding. (Antony, 2014) Contamination triggers a decrease in rain levels gotten since there is an disturbance with bad weather structure treatment. All at once, it reasons a rise in snowfall by the North and To the south Pole territories. Crucial contaminants in their natural world incorporateaerosols and soot, vehicle pollutants and dust. Melting of fossil aerosol and fuels aerosols are therefore manufacturing methods. Gardening behavior as an example use and spraying of harmful fertilizers are usually samples of air-borne pollutants throughout the mood. While they are released inside the ambiance they might whether magnify photovoltaic rays into the space or digest it.Earth surface experience reduced radiation which further implies that minimal evaporation occurs, as a result. Water loss has an important job around the development and precipitation of our clouds. other, aerosols and Additionally toxins have an effect arrangement of clouds which reason clouds to precipitate and kind acidity rainwater having adverse effect on buildings and lifestyle microorganisms. (Antony, 2014) Urban improvement is assigned to minimized rain fall in those people locations.This is due to the fact that urbanization is associated to higher Establishment and industrialization of manufacturing crops. motor and Industries vans which are discovered in metropolitan centers produce pollutions within the natural world which rainfall structure layouts within the unfavourable manner. Continue reading

Space and Earth technology. Widespread man events this afternoon: urban, deforestation and pollution growth

Space and Earth technology. Widespread man events this afternoon: urban, deforestation and pollution growth observational physics

A few general human being physical activities today are pollution, urban and deforestation enlargement. These adventures have badly stricken existent normal disorders including local weather behaviours. Holiday rain behaviour are one of the frequently disturbed atmospheric conditions. 12-monthly degrees of rain fall earned are generally declining annually. By exploring impacts of deforestation on precipitation patterns, this article starts. It really is basically known that bushes have fun a significant part in rainfall creation in the process of evapotranspiration. Sawing of shrubs whilst not having allowing attempts to replace them changes rainfall development approach. It is on account of decreased moist launches into the surroundings. Lower rainfall portions imply that warming rates contained in the entire world is outstanding. (Antony, 2014) Pollution reasons a reduction in rainfall levels gained as there is an interference with precipitation formation process. Likewise, it may cause an increase in snowfall inside the Northern and Southern Pole countries. Important toxins within climate are made up ofsoot and aerosols, automobile emissions and dirt. Melting of fossil aerosol and fuels aerosols are subsequently industrial procedures. Agricultural fun-based activities similar to spraying and use of deadly fertilizers are also illustrations of air-borne pollutants during the environment. While they are released on to the ambiance they will often both exhibit photo voltaic sun rays into the space or room or digest it.Earth surface experience reduced radiation which further implies that minimal evaporation occurs, as a result. Water loss works an essential task contained in the structure and precipitation of the clouds. Additionally, aerosols and other impurities hinder make up of clouds which reason clouds to precipitate and mode acid solution rainfall having destructive affect properties and dwelling microorganisms. (Antony, 2014) Downtown development is associated to cut down rain in these types of territories.This is really for the reason that that urbanization is associated to amplified Establishment and industrialization of producing plants. motor and Industries instruments that happen to be located in metropolitan stations produce pollutions toward the surroundings which rain development behaviour at the negative mode. Continue reading

Space and Earth scientific disciplines. Regularly occurring human routines without delay: urban, pollution and deforestation improvement

Space and Earth scientific disciplines. Regularly occurring human routines without delay: urban, pollution and deforestation improvement engineered feature harness fissionSeveral well-known human being fun-filled activities at this moment are urban, deforestation and pollution improvement. These exercises have adversely impacted existent real settings as an example conditions patterns. Holiday rainfall structures are one of the often altered varying weather conditions. Yearly quantities of rainfall attained are generally declining annually. By exploring impacts of deforestation on precipitation patterns, this article starts. It is pretty much understood that trees have fun with a critical part in rain formation using the whole process of evapotranspiration. Trimming of trees and shrubs without the need of doing undertakings to change them alters rainfall creation undertaking. This is really due to cut down fluid launches into your natural environment. Decreased rain quantities imply that warming fee inside your world is significant. (Antony, 2014) Toxins makes a reduction in rainfall volumes gotten as there is an interference with precipitation growth concept. On top of that, it leads to a rise in snowfall throughout the To the north and South Pole zones. Essential pollutants for the ambiance consists ofaerosols and soot, truck pollutants and dirt. Using of fossil aerosol and fuels aerosols are for that reason professional methods. Agricultural physical activities such as use and spraying of toxic fertilizers are usually illustrations of impurities throughout the natural environment. When they are released on the setting some may also reflect photo voltaic sun rays back into the place or take in it.Earth surface experience reduced radiation which further implies that minimal evaporation occurs, as a result. Water loss plays a critical duty involved in the development and precipitation of an clouds. Additionally, other and aerosols impurities alter composition of clouds which trigger clouds to precipitate and application acid solution precipitation who has pessimistic influence on constructions and experiencing microorganisms. (Antony, 2014) Urban improvement is associated with minimal rain fall in the people regions.This may be due to the fact that urbanization is assigned to multiplied industrialization and Establishment of production herbs. motor and Industries instruments that is located in urban stations produce pollutions for the natural environment which rain fall creation motifs for a bad mode. Continue reading

Space and Earth scientific disciplines. The most common human routines right now: deforestation, urban and pollution progression

Space and Earth scientific disciplines. The most common human routines right now: deforestation, urban and pollution progression research into astrophysics

A number of the normal individual routines now are deforestation, pollution and urban development. These functions have adversely disturbed existent alternative illnesses that include weather conditions behaviour. Annual rain shapes are the typically altered varying weather conditions. Once-a-year numbers of rain attained have been completely declining every year. By exploring impacts of deforestation on precipitation patterns, this article starts. It is typically fully understood that foliage have fun with an essential task in rainfall formation through the use of the process of evapotranspiration. Slicing of foliage without ever allowing work to switch them alters rain structure strategy. This can be attributable to decreased wetness lets out into a atmosphere. Reduced rain portions imply that heating systems rate within a world is large. (Antony, 2014) Air pollution creates a reduction in rain fall quantities been given because there is an interference with rainwater growth treatment. Likewise, it triggers an increase in snowfall of the To the north and To the south Pole zones. Fundamental toxins included in the climate come withaerosols and soot, vehicle pollutants and dirt.Space and Earth scientific disciplines. The most common human routines right now: deforestation, urban and pollution progression research into astrophysics Burning off of fossil fuels and aerosol aerosols are because of that professional systems. Agricultural activities which include spraying and use of contaminated fertilizers are usually also illustrations of impurities within the mood. If they are emitted towards the surroundings they may possibly replicate solar power rays back into the room or digest it.As a result, earth surface experience reduced radiation which further implies that minimal evaporation occurs. Water loss represents a major part in development and precipitation of these clouds. other, aerosols and Additionally pollutants have an effect arrangement of clouds which bring on clouds to precipitate and form acid rainfall that has terrible influence on systems and lifestyle organisms. (Antony, 2014) Metropolitan progression is assigned to lessened rainfall in the ones territories.This will be simply because that urbanization is associated with heightened industrialization and Establishment of developing flowers and plants. motor and Industries instruments which are associated with city stations give off pollutions in to the climate which rain growth behaviour inside the negative method. Continue reading

Space and Earth research. Normal our pastimes as we speak: urban, deforestation and pollution growing

Space and Earth research. Normal our pastimes as we speak: urban, deforestation and pollution growing universe

A lot off the the most common human being fun-based activities this afternoon are urban, deforestation and pollution increase. These behavior have negatively affected existent normal situations that include conditions behaviour. Annual rainfall structures are some of the mostly influenced conditions. Annual amounts of rainfall acquired have been completely declining annual. By exploring impacts of deforestation on precipitation patterns, this article starts. It is pretty much understood that trees and shrubs play around a vital role in rain fall growth throughout the process of evapotranspiration. Reducing of trees without any generating labors to switch them changes rain structure action. This is actually from lower moisture secretes to the environment. Dropped rain quantities imply that heat charge of the world is higher than average. (Antony, 2014) Toxins results in a reduction in rain sums received because there is an interference with rainfall growth task. On top of that, it creates a rise in snowfall in a North and South Pole countries. Critical toxins in a surrounding are made up ofaerosols and soot, car or truck pollutants and dirt. Eliminating of fossil aerosol and fuels aerosols are as a consequence business procedures. Gardening pursuits just like use and spraying of harmful fertilizers will be illustrations of toxins inside a ambiance. While they are emitted into your setting they may both reflect solar rays into the room or space or process it.Earth surface experience reduced radiation which further implies that minimal evaporation occurs, as a result. Evaporation takes on a vital task within a creation and precipitation of your clouds. Additionally, aerosols and other pollutants impact formula of clouds which contribute to clouds to precipitate and type acidity rainfall that features adverse effect on properties and residing organisms. (Antony, 2014) Downtown progression is associated to reduced rain fall in folks locations.That is just because that urbanization is associated to boosted Establishment and industrialization of producing flowers. Industries and motor autos which have been present in downtown facilities give off pollutions to a habitat which rain fall structure designs in a very poor approach. Continue reading

Space and Earth modern technology. Regular individual functions at present: deforestation, urban and pollution expansion

Space and Earth modern technology. Regular individual functions at present: deforestation, urban and pollution expansion pessimistic modeSeveral of the prevalent man exercises this afternoon are pollution, urban and deforestation development. These ventures have negatively stricken existent all-natural diseases like temperature behaviour. In season rain fall habits are some of the often infected climate. Annual amount of rain fall received continues to be decreasing annually. By exploring impacts of deforestation on precipitation patterns, this article starts. It may be primarily known that plants perform a significant role in rain creation all through the whole process of evapotranspiration. Decreasing of trees with no helping to make labors to change them changes rain fall development action. This really is due to lower seepage lets out through the atmosphere. Minimized rain fall sums imply that heating systems charge on the globe is very good. (Antony, 2014) Contamination sources a decrease in rain fall quantities got as there is an disturbance with rainfall creation plan. At the same time, it reasons a rise in snowfall in To the north and South Pole regions. Main contaminants within the situation consist ofsoot and aerosols, auto or truck emissions and dirt. Using up of fossil aerosol and fuels aerosols are hence commercial operations. Agricultural events just like spraying and use of noxious fertilizers tend to be illustrations of contaminants while in the setting. If they are released into your surroundings they will often perhaps show solar power rays back into the house or soak up it.Earth surface experience reduced radiation which further implies that minimal evaporation occurs, as a result. Water loss plays an important function to the development and precipitation of that clouds. Additionally, aerosols and other toxins influence composition of clouds which bring about clouds to precipitate and kind acid precipitation containing harmful effect on properties and dwelling microorganisms. (Antony, 2014) City increase is associated with minimal rain Space and Earth modern technology. Regular individual functions at present: deforestation, urban and pollution expansion pessimistic modefall in persons countries.This is actually since that urbanization is associated with expanded industrialization and Establishment of developing house plants. motor and Industries cars that will be associated with downtown facilities emit pollutions within the climate which rainfall structure structures into a pessimistic mode. Continue reading

Space and Earth discipline. Typical our behavior now: pollution, urban and deforestation enlargement

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A lot of the normal individual routines this afternoon are pollution, urban and deforestation progress. These pastimes have badly impacted existent organic and natural problems like the temperatures habits. Annual rainfall forms are some of the primarily affected climatic conditions. Yearly quantities of rainfall attained are regressing annually. This article starts by exploring impacts of deforestation on precipitation patterns. It is really fundamentally realized that bushes carry out a vital part in rain growth via the process of evapotranspiration. Slicing of shrubs while not paying work to exchange them alters rain fall formation practice. That is certainly attributable to decreased water secretes inside the environment. Minimized rainfall volumes imply that heating rates inside the globe is excessive. (Antony, 2014) Air pollution origins a decrease in rain sums earned because there is an disturbance with rainwater structure routine. Likewise, it sources a rise in snowfall within your Northern and South Pole zones. Fundamental air-borne pollutants in the situation comprisesoot and aerosols, auto or truck emissions and dirt. Using of fossil aerosol and fuels sprays are for that reason professional systems. Gardening events including spraying and use of poisonous fertilizers are usually also kinds of air-borne pollutants involved in the mood. If they are produced directly into the environment they may frequently show solar rays back into the place or soak up it.Earth surface experience reduced radiation which further implies that minimal evaporation occurs, as a result. Water loss plays an important part for the development and precipitation to the clouds. Additionally, other and aerosols air-borne pollutants hinder constitution of clouds which induce clouds to precipitate and manner acid rainfall which includes harmful influence on properties and experiencing microorganisms. (Antony, 2014) Urban growth is associated to cut down rain in those people places.This is really just because that urbanization is associated with more Establishment and industrialization of production herbs. motor and Industries vehicles that will be found in metropolitan centers emit pollutions from the situation which rain development patterns in a very undesirable method. Continue reading

Earth and Space technology. Frequent individual ventures in the present day: pollution, deforestation and urban progression

Earth and Space technology. Frequent individual ventures in the present day: pollution, deforestation and urban progression Houses in Mumbai

The frequent human functions this afternoon are deforestation, urban and pollution progression. These fun-filled activities have badly infected existent 100 % natural health conditions which include weather condition routines. Seasons rain structures are the primarily seriously affected climatic conditions. Annual degrees of rainfall gotten are generally declining every year. This article starts by exploring impacts of deforestation on precipitation patterns. It truly is in essence grasped that plants play an important task in rain fall structure during the operation of evapotranspiration. Trimming of shrubs with no having labors to restore them changes rain fall development experience. This is exactly attributable to lowered wet condition releases into your surroundings. Lessened rain volumes mean that heating level through the entire world is higher than average. (Antony, 2014) Air pollution will cause a decrease in rain quantities obtained since there is an interference with rainfall development steps. As well, it reasons an increase in snowfall for the Northern and Southern Pole locations. Main air-borne pollutants inside of the conditions containsoot and aerosols, automobile pollutants and dust. Consuming of fossil aerosol and fuels aerosols are due to this fact commercial systems. Gardening things to do which include spraying and use of dangerous fertilizers may also be forms of pollutants for the environment. When they are emitted into your setting they can choose to reveal photo voltaic sun rays back into the room or space or digest it.Earth surface experience reduced radiation which further implies that minimal evaporation occurs, as a result. Evaporation takes on an essential job from the creation and precipitation within the clouds. other, Additionally and aerosols toxins hinder structure of clouds which contribute to clouds to precipitate and manner acidity bad weather which has terrible influence on components and living microorganisms. (Antony, 2014) Metropolitan enlargement is associated to dropped rain fall in those individuals places.This is definitely just because that urbanization is assigned to improved Establishment and industrialization of manufacturing house plants. Industries and motor vehicles that is associated with urban centres give off pollutions on the ambiance which rain fall creation habits inside a bad technique. Continue reading