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- Foreign Direct Investment
- Book Review: Fly-Girls, Bitches and Hoes: Notes of a Hip-Hop Feminist
- Space and Earth scientific research. Typical our exercises right now: urban, deforestation and pollution increase
- Space and Earth technology. Widespread man events this afternoon: urban, deforestation and pollution growth
- Space and Earth scientific disciplines. Regularly occurring human routines without delay: urban, pollution and deforestation improvement
Outstanding advise for authoring essays on Earth and Space
- Category: Uncategorised
- Published on Monday, 30 May 2016 11:58
- Written by Super User
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Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) being an investment carried out in a business by investors from some other countries whereby the particular foreign investor has control over the company purchased is associated with several benefits. A company that makes foreign direct investments is often referred to as the multinational corporations or the multinational enterprises. In case a multinational corporation makes a direct investment whereby he/she creates a new foreign enterprise, this is referred as the green investment while through the acquisition of a foreign firm is known as the brownfield investment. According to various ratings FDI has the potential in bringing environmental benefits when it comes to the host economies which is through the dissemination of good the technology as well as the good practices within the Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) which also through their subsequent spillovers to the domestic firms.
Benefits of Foreign Direct Investment.
Some of the benefits associated with the foreign direct investments in terms democracy promotion and environment are as follows:
An introduction of environmentally friendly technology.
FDI plays a significant role when it comes to the technology development of a particular country especially where the investment is being carried out (Alfaro 2004, 95)3. 2
There are definite technological effects resulting from the use of environmentally friendly technology. Usually, there is a significant potential for the technological diffusion from the mining investment. The reason being that mines tends to be essentially low-technology earth moving operations, especially where there is involvement of open pit operations. It helps create a more conducive environment to an investor as well as benefiting the local industry of a state. This benefit is commonly applicable to the countries that are developing. When it comes to most of the countries that are economically developing, foreign direct investments tend to be significant external sources (Edwards 1992)4.
Considering a country like the South Africa where the mining industry is one of the most established in the world, much of the mining technology used currently has already been produced locally thus the technological effects is likely to be small in mining.
Since the potential positive spillover is far more liable to take place in the mineral processing and the finished product manufacture, there is an opportunity for the foreign investors to introduce an environmentally friendly technology. This, in turn, leads to developing the technology.
Positive Regulatory and Policy Effects By The Government.
Normally positive governing or the policy effects result from the potential improvement in regulation (Jaffe 2002, 60)5. 3
Taking an example of a country like the South Africa, it has an adamant law and also the institutions with a very long effective supervision of the mining industry with the assistance of the government willingness to proceed the potential economic benefits when it come to the presence of doubts regarding the environmental impacts of the mining development. It is thus very unlikely for the foreign direct investment in the mining sector to have a negative policy or the regulatory effects.
Also taking an example of a country like Ghana, it is clear that some mining operations that are financed by the FDI, especially where there is involvement of the IFC financing, there is applying of environmental standards in advance of the ones required by the government.
Positive structural effects.
Normally positive structural effects occur when the existing targeting foreign direct investment (FDI) is involving environmental pressure that is less than the previous targets, this may include a shift from the manufacturing to the services (Coyne Sr 2012)6. Taking, for example, a mining industry, the main structural effect that may result is the replacement of artisanal as well as the small scale mining by the large-scale projects. FDI helps in providing a source of capital, generating new job opportunities, boosting economic growth, and complementing private domestic investment in the host countries (Biglaiser 2006, 60) 7
Development of the domestic industries.4
The technological externalities and the demonstration effects of the economy result in a positive outcome on the local firm’s total factor together on their propensity to export (Markusen 1999, 345)8. The spillover channels arising from the FDI helps improve the efficiency that may involve copying of technologies of the foreign affiliates that is operating in the local market that may be through hiring trained workers by the affiliates or through observation. Normally the development of the domestic industry is achieved through the direct transfer of knowledge that is from the foreign customers to the local supplies.
Increasing the demand for the environmental quality.
Foreign direct investment in a particular country leads to increased demand for the environmental quality that simultaneously increases the level of income (Lambin 2011, 3468)9. Mainly as the Foreign Direct Investment increases the level of the income, it directly contributes to a rise in environmental demand. To increase this environmental demand, a democratic 5government requires coming up with rules and regulations that are governing the FDI by the foreign investors in a way that is attractive and seems friendly.
In conclusion, foreign direct investment is highly associated with some benefits regarding democracy promotion and the environment.
These benefits may include the introduction of environmentally friendly technology, positive structural impacts, and Positive regulatory and policy effects by the government, development of domestic industries, and increasing the demand for the environmental quality.
Government policies due to the democracy of a country have effects on FDI because of the agreements between a government that allow investors from a particular country with an aim of gaining entry into the market (Busse 2007, 405)10. Also, FDI also has some other benefits like ensuring easy access to the markets and reducing the production cost (Helpman 2003)11. It acts as an effective way when it comes to entering a foreign market. Usually, some countries tend to have an extreme limit when it comes to the companies accessing their domestic markets. For reducing the cost of production, FDI serves as a means that help reduces the production cost if it happens that the market is cheaper, and also the regulations are less restrictive when it comes to targeting market functions that are determined by the government (JANAKIRAM 2011)12.
- Category: Uncategorised
- Published on Tuesday, 23 February 2016 12:23
- Written by Super User
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The article “Fly-Girls, Bitches and Hoes: Notes of a Hip-Hop Feminist” by Joan Morgan focuses on the issues of sexism and misogyny that are present in the hip-hop music produced in the current times. The author seeks to answer critics who identify that she is a feminism activist yet she still associates with the hateful music. Morgan uses this opportunity to explain how her love for hip-hop developed from its start to the point where it is currently (Morgan 151). The music was once a battle of who has the best lyrics and rhymes along with “fly-girls” so as to boast to the rest of his peers. However, it has now turned to a medium of insulting these former “fly-girls” as they are called “bitches and hoes”.
The article that is review by an academic writer from indicates, “It also maintains that black-on-black love is essential to the survival of both” (retrieved and viewed on December 28, 2015). This phrase is important in expressing the author’s position that hip hop and her stance on feminism are not incongruent rather it is her community who seem to be at loggerheads. Moreover, she indicates that there is more to these hip-hop songs that have been already judged as sexist or misogynous. Close analysis of these lyrics demonstrate a state of depression existing among African American men in the society as they pass it off as machismo through committing murder, abusing drugs and violence against women (Morgan 153).
The author indeed is correct in pointing out that the African American race is in a state of crisis. Members of the community have allowed crime, drug abuse, gender roles and economic classes to tear them apart. Previously, the members were loyal to each other as evident in the many centuries of oppression they have conquered together. As a result, this population could be the source of its own demise.
Space and Earth scientific research. Typical our exercises right now: urban, deforestation and pollution increase
- Category: Normal Our Pastimes as We Speak
- Published on Tuesday, 18 August 2015 14:54
- Written by Super User
- Hits: 386
A lot off the standard human being habits at this point are urban, deforestation and pollution growth. These adventures have badly altered existent natural and organic situations including climatic conditions designs. Periodic rain layouts are one of the more often than not affected temperatures. Twelve-monthly degrees of rain fall attained may be declining every year. By exploring impacts of deforestation on precipitation patterns, this article starts. This is quite simply recognized that trees have fun with a vital purpose in rain fall growth by using the procedure of evapotranspiration. Chopping of trees without any manufacturing goals to exchange them alters rain creation treatment. That is as a result of decreased moist launches to the environment. Reduced rain quantities imply that heat pace inside world is outstanding. (Antony, 2014) Contamination triggers a decrease in rain levels gotten since there is an disturbance with bad weather structure treatment. All at once, it reasons a rise in snowfall by the North and To the south Pole territories. Crucial contaminants in their natural world incorporateaerosols and soot, vehicle pollutants and dust. Melting of fossil aerosol and fuels aerosols are therefore manufacturing methods. Gardening behavior as an example use and spraying of harmful fertilizers are usually samples of air-borne pollutants throughout the mood. While they are released inside the ambiance they might whether magnify photovoltaic rays into the space or digest it.Earth surface experience reduced radiation which further implies that minimal evaporation occurs, as a result. Water loss has an important job around the development and precipitation of our clouds. other, aerosols and Additionally toxins have an effect arrangement of clouds which reason clouds to precipitate and kind acidity rainwater having adverse effect on buildings and lifestyle microorganisms. (Antony, 2014) Urban improvement is assigned to minimized rain fall in those people locations.This is due to the fact that urbanization is associated to higher Establishment and industrialization of manufacturing crops. motor and Industries vans which are discovered in metropolitan centers produce pollutions within the natural world which rainfall structure layouts within the unfavourable manner.
Space and Earth technology. Widespread man events this afternoon: urban, deforestation and pollution growth
- Category: Earth and Space Technology
- Published on Thursday, 06 August 2015 19:12
- Written by Super User
- Hits: 458
A few general human being physical activities today are pollution, urban and deforestation enlargement. These adventures have badly stricken existent normal disorders including local weather behaviours. Holiday rain behaviour are one of the frequently disturbed atmospheric conditions. 12-monthly degrees of rain fall earned are generally declining annually. By exploring impacts of deforestation on precipitation patterns, this article starts. It really is basically known that bushes have fun a significant part in rainfall creation in the process of evapotranspiration. Sawing of shrubs whilst not having allowing attempts to replace them changes rainfall development approach. It is on account of decreased moist launches into the surroundings. Lower rainfall portions imply that warming rates contained in the entire world is outstanding. (Antony, 2014) Pollution reasons a reduction in rainfall levels gained as there is an interference with precipitation formation process. Likewise, it may cause an increase in snowfall inside the Northern and Southern Pole countries. Important toxins within climate are made up ofsoot and aerosols, automobile emissions and dirt. Melting of fossil aerosol and fuels aerosols are subsequently industrial procedures. Agricultural fun-based activities similar to spraying and use of deadly fertilizers are also illustrations of air-borne pollutants during the environment. While they are released on to the ambiance they will often both exhibit photo voltaic sun rays into the space or room or digest it.Earth surface experience reduced radiation which further implies that minimal evaporation occurs, as a result. Water loss works an essential task contained in the structure and precipitation of the clouds. Additionally, aerosols and other impurities hinder make up of clouds which reason clouds to precipitate and mode acid solution rainfall having destructive affect properties and dwelling microorganisms. (Antony, 2014) Downtown development is associated to cut down rain in these types of territories.This is really for the reason that that urbanization is associated to amplified Establishment and industrialization of producing plants. motor and Industries instruments that happen to be located in metropolitan stations produce pollutions toward the surroundings which rain development behaviour at the negative mode.